Tag: science information

Scientists study whale that lives 200 years for clues

Scientists study whale that lives 200 years for clues


Sei whale, Azores, North Atlantic

A whale that can live over 200 years with little evidence of age-related disease may provide untapped insights into how to live a long and healthy life, biologists say.

In the Jan. 6 issue of the research journal Cell Reports, scientists present the bowhead whale’s complete genome and identify what they say are key differences with other mammals.

Changes in bowhead genes related to cell division, DNA repair, cancer, and aging may have helped increase its longevity and cancer resistance, according to the researchers.

“Our understanding of species’ differences in longevity is very poor, and thus our findings provide novel candidate genes for future studies,” said the study’s senior author, João Pedro de Magalhães of the University of Liverpool in the UK.

“My view is that species evolved different ‘tricks’ to have a longer lifespan, and by discovering the ‘tricks’ used by the bowhead we may be able to apply those findings to humans in order to fight age-related diseases.”

Also, he added, large whales with over 1,000 times more cells than humans don’t seem to have higher cancer risk, suggesting the whales have natural mechanisms that help suppress cancer.

Magalhães and his team plan to breed mice with various bowhead genes in hopes of determining the importance of different genes for longevity and resistance to diseases. They also note that because the bowhead’s genome is the first among large whales to be decoded, the new information may help reveal physiological adaptations related to large size.

Martian meteorite reveals the planet’s climate billions of years ago

Martian meteorite reveals the planet’s climate billions of years ago



Meteorite hunters plucked a Martian rock from an Antarctic ice field 30 years ago. A new research on that rock, this month reveals a record of the planet’s climate billions of years ago, back when water likely washed across its surface and any life that ever formed there might have emerged.

Scientists from the University of California, San Diego, NASA and the Smithsonian Institution report detailed measurements of minerals within the meteorite in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week.

“Minerals within the meteorite hold a snapshot of the planet’s ancient chemistry, of interactions between water and atmosphere,” said Robina Shaheen, the lead author of the report.

The unlovely stone, which fell to Earth 13 thousand years ago, looked a lot like a potato and has quite a history. Designated ALH84001, it is the oldest meteorite we have from Mars, a chunk of solidified magma from a volcano that erupted four billion years ago. Since then something liquid, probably water, seeped through pores in the rock and deposited globules of carbonates and other minerals.

The carbonates vary subtly depending on the sources of their carbon and oxygen atoms. Both carbon and oxygen occur in heavier and lighter versions, or isotopes. The relative abundances of isotopes forms a chemical signature that careful analysis and sensitive measurements can uncover.

Mars’s atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide but contains some ozone. The balance of oxygen isotopes within ozone are strikingly weird with enrichment of heavy isotopes through a physical chemical phenomenon first described by co-author Mark Thiemens, a professor of chemistry at UC San Diego, and colleagues 25 years ago.

“When ozone reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, it transfers its isotopic weirdness to the new molecule,” said Shaheen, who investigated this process of oxygen isotope exchange as a graduate student at the University of Heidelberg in Germany. When carbon dioxide reacts with water to make carbonates, the isotopic signature continues to be preserved.

The degree of isotopic weirdness in the carbonates reflects how much water and ozone was present when they formed. It’s a record of climate 3.9 billion years ago, locked in a stable mineral. The more water, the smaller the weird ozone signal.

This team measured a pronounced ozone signal in the carbonates within the meteorite, suggesting that although Mars had water back then, vast oceans were unlikely. Instead, the early Martian landscape probably held smaller seas.

“What’s also new is our simultaneous measurements of carbon isotopes on the same samples. The mix of carbon isotopes suggest that the different minerals within the meteorite had separate origins,” Shaheen said. “They tell us the story of the chemical and isotopic compositions of the atmospheric carbon dioxide.”

ALH84001 held tiny tubes of carbonate that some scientists saw as potential evidence of microbial life, though a biological origin for the structures has been discarded. On December 16, NASA announced another potential whiff of Martian life in the form of methane sniffed by the rover Curiosity.

Carbonates can be deposited by living things that scavenge the minerals to build their skeletons, but that is not the case for the minerals measured by this team. “The carbonate we see is not from living things,” Shaheen said. “It has anomalous oxygen isotopes that tell us this carbonate is abiotic.”

By measuring the isotopes in multiple ways, the chemists found carbonates depleted in carbon-13 and enriched in oxygen-18. That is, Mars’s atmosphere in this era, a period of great bombardment, had much less carbon-13 than it does today.

The change in relative abundances of carbon and oxygen isotopes may have occurred through extensive loss of Martian atmosphere. A thicker atmosphere would likely have been required for liquid water to flow on the planet’s chilly surface.

“We now have a much deeper and specific insight into the earliest oxygen-water system in the solar system,” Thiemens said. “The question that remains is when did planets, Earth and Mars, get water, and in the case of Mars, where did it go? We’ve made great progress, but still deep mysteries remain.”

Body Cameras On Cops can present violence

Body Cameras On Cops can present violence



Body cameras on police officers may reduce abusive behavior both by and against officers, a study has found.

Researchers from the University of Cambridge in the U.K. published the results of an experiment they conducted on the cameras’ effects in Rialto, Calif. in 2012. The year-long study found that use of force by camera-wearing police fell by 59 percent and reports against officers dropped by 87 percent against the previous year’s figures.

While the technology helps capture evidence for potential use in court, its greatest benefit may be preventing escalation to violence in the first place, the investigators said—in short, people tend to behave when they know they’re on camera.

However, the research team caution that the Rialto experiment is only a first step, and that more needs to be known about the impact of body-worn cameras before police departments are pressured into adopting the technology.

Vital questions remain, they explained, about how routine provision of digital video as evidence will affect prosecution expectations, and the storage technology and policies that the immense amounts of new data will require. President Obama recently promised to spend $75 million of federal funds on body-worn-video to address persistent protests over police killing unarmed black men.

Some question the merit of camera technology given that the officer responsible for killing Eric Garner—a 43-year-old black man suffocated during arrest for selling untaxed cigarettes—was acquitted by a grand jury even though a bystander filmed the altercation on a cell phone. Footage showed an illegal ‘chokehold’ placed on Garner who repeatedly states: “I can’t breathe.” (A medical examiner ruled the death a homicide).

For the Cambridge researchers, the Rialto results show that body-worn-cameras can reduce the need for such evidence by preventing excessive force in the first place.

“In the tragic case of Eric Garner, police weren’t aware of the camera and didn’t have to tell the suspect that he, and therefore they, were being filmed,” said Barak Ariel of Cambridge’s Institute of Criminology, who conducted the experiment with Cambridge colleague Alex Sutherland and Rialto police chief Tony Farrar.

“With institutional body-worn-camera use, an officer is obliged to issue a warning from the start that an encounter is being filmed, impacting the psyche of all involved by conveying a straightforward, pragmatic message: we are all being watched, videotaped and expected to follow the rules,” he said.

The idea behind body-worn-video, in which small high-definition cameras are strapped to a police officers’ torso or hat, is that every step of every police-public interaction—from the mundane to those involving deadly force—gets recorded to capture the closest approximation of actual events for evidence purposes, with only case-relevant data being stored.

In Rialto, police shifts over the course of a year were randomly assigned to be either with or without camera, with video covering over 50,000 hours of interactions. Ariel and colleagues are replicating the Rialto experiment with over 30 forces across the world, and early signs match the Rialto success, Ariel said.

Body-worn cameras seem very cost-effective: analysis from Rialto showed every dollar spent on the technology saved about four dollars on complaints litigations, the researchers added. But with technology becoming cheaper, the sheer volumes of data storage could become crippling.

“User licenses, storage space, ‘security costs’, maintenance and system upgrades can potentially translate into billions of dollars worldwide,” Ariel said.

And, if body-worn cameras become the norm, what might the cost be when video evidence isn’t available? “Historically, courtroom testimonies of response officers have carried tremendous weight, but prevalence of video might lead to reluctance to prosecute when there is no evidence from body-worn-cameras to corroborate the testimony of an officer, or even a victim,” said Ariel.

The study is published in the Journal of Quantitative Criminology.

Scientists may be able to restore the lost memories

Scientists may be able to restore the lost memories



New UCLA research indicates that lost memories can be restored. It shows some rays of hope for patients in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease.

For decades, most neuroscientists have believed that memories are stored at the synapses — the connections between brain cells, or neurons — which are destroyed by Alzheimer’s disease. The new study provides evidence contradicting this idea.

“Long-term memory is not stored at the synapse,” said David Glanzman, a senior author of the study, and a UCLA professor of integrative biology and physiology and of neurobiology. “That’s a radical idea, but that’s where the evidence leads. The nervous system appears to be able to regenerate lost synaptic connections. If you can restore the synaptic connections, the memory will come back. It won’t be easy, but I believe it’s possible.” The findings were published recently in eLife.

Glanzman’s research team studies a type of marine snail called Aplysia to understand the animal’s learning and memory. The Aplysia displays a defensive response to protect its gill from potential harm, and the researchers are especially interested in its withdrawal reflex and the sensory and motor neurons that produce it.

They enhanced the snail’s withdrawal reflex by giving it several mild electrical shocks on its tail. The enhancement lasts for days after a series of electrical shocks, which indicates the snail’s long-term memory. Glanzman explained that the shock causes the hormone serotonin to be released in the snail’s central nervous system.

Long-term memory is a function of the growth of new synaptic connections caused by the serotonin, said Glanzman, a member of UCLA’s Brain Research Institute. As long-term memories are formed, the brain creates new proteins that are involved in making new synapses. If that process is disrupted — for example by a concussion or other injury — the proteins may not be synthesized and long-term memories cannot form. (This is why people cannot remember what happened moments before a concussion.)

“If you train an animal on a task, inhibit its ability to produce proteins immediately after training, and then test it 24 hours later, the animal doesn’t remember the training,” Glanzman said. “However, if you train an animal, wait 24 hours, and then inject a protein synthesis inhibitor in its brain, the animal shows perfectly good memory 24 hours later. In other words, once memories are formed, if you temporarily disrupt protein synthesis, it doesn’t affect long-term memory. That’s true in the Aplysia and in human’s brains.” (This explains why people’s older memories typically survive following a concussion.)

Glanzman’s team found the same mechanism held true when studying the snail’s neurons in a Petri dish. The researchers placed the sensory and motor neurons that mediate the snail’s withdrawal reflex in a Petri dish, where the neurons re-formed the synaptic connections that existed when the neurons were inside the snail’s body. When serotonin was added to the dish, new synaptic connections formed between the sensory and motor neurons. But if the addition of serotonin was immediately followed by the addition of a substance that inhibits protein synthesis, the new synaptic growth was blocked; long-term memory could not be formed.

The researchers also wanted to understand whether synapses disappeared when memories did. To find out, they counted the number of synapses in the dish and then, 24 hours later, added a protein synthesis inhibitor. One day later, they re-counted the synapses.

What they found was that new synapses had grown and the synaptic connections between the neurons had been strengthened; late treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor did not disrupt the long-term memory. The phenomenon is extremely similar to what happens in the snail’s nervous system during this type of simple learning, Glanzman said.

Next, the scientists added serotonin to a Petri dish containing a sensory neuron and motor neuron, waited 24 hours, and then added another brief pulse of serotonin — which served to remind the neurons of the original training — and immediately afterward add the protein synthesis inhibitor. This time, they found that synaptic growth and memory were erased. When they re-counted the synapses, they found that the number had reset to the number before the training, Glanzman said. This suggests that the “reminder” pulse of serotonin triggered a new round of memory consolidation, and that inhibiting protein synthesis during this “reconsolidation” erased the memory in the neurons.

If the prevailing wisdom were true — that memories are stored in the synapses — the researchers should have found that the lost synapses were the same ones that had grown in response to the serotonin. But that’s not what happened: Instead, they found that some of the new synapses were still present and some were gone, and that some of the original ones were gone, too.

Glanzman said there was no obvious pattern to which synapses stayed and which disappeared, which implied that memory is not stored in synapses.

When the scientists repeated the experiment in the snail, and then gave the animal a modest number of tail shocks — which do not produce long-term memory in a naive snail — the memory they thought had been completely erased returned. This implies that synaptic connections that were lost were apparently restored.

“That suggests that the memory is not in the synapses but somewhere else,” Glanzman said. “We think it’s in the nucleus of the neurons. We haven’t proved that, though.”

Glanzman said the research could have significant implications for people with Alzheimer’s disease. Specifically, just because the disease is known to destroy synapses in the brain doesn’t mean that memories are destroyed.

“As long as the neurons are still alive, the memory will still be there, which means you may be able to recover some of the lost memories in the early stages of Alzheimer’s,” he said.

Glanzman added that in the later stages of the disease, neurons die, which likely means that the memories cannot be recovered.

The cellular and molecular processes seem to be very similar between the marine snail and humans, even though the snail has approximately 20,000 neurons and humans have about 1 trillion.

Almost all the processes that are involved in memory in the snail also have been shown to be involved in memory in the brains of mammals, Glanzman said.

Glanzman’s demonstration that the NMDA receptor plays a critical role in learning in a simple animal like the marine snail was entirely unexpected at the time.


Quantum physics may have just gotten simpler

Quantum physics may have just gotten simpler



Here’s a nice surprise: quantum physics is less complicated than we thought, according to new research. The work links two strange features of the quantum world—or nature at the smallest scales, such as that of subatomic particles—calling them different manifestations of the same thing.

These features go by the names “wave-particle duality” and the “uncertainty principle.” In work published Dec. 19 in the journal Nature Communications, the researchers, who did the work at the National University of Singapore, say the first is just the second in disguise.

The connection “comes out very naturally when you consider them as questions about what information you can gain about a system,” said one of the scientists, Stephanie Wehner, who is now at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands.

Wave-particle duality is the idea that a quantum object can behave like a wave, but that the wave behavior stops if you try to locate the object.

The duality is seen in experiments in which subatomic particles, such as electrons, are fired one by one at a screen with two thin slits. The particles pile up behind the slits not in two heaps, but in a striped pattern as you’d expect for waves that “interfere” with each other. An everyday example of wave interference occurs when you toss two pebbles in a pond at once a small distance away from each other: when the two sets of ripples meet, they form characteristic patterns as their effects add up.

However, in the quantum case, the pattern vanishes if you sneak a look at which slit a particle goes through—at which point the particles start to act like particles and not waves.

The quantum uncertainty principle is the idea that it’s impossible to know certain pairs of things about a quantum particle at once. For example, the more precisely you know the position of an atom, the less precisely you can know its speed. It’s a limit on the fundamental knowability of nature, not a statement on measurement skill. The new work finds that there is an identical sort of limit on how much you can learn about a system’s wave versus the particle behavior.

Wave-particle duality and uncertainty have been fundamental concepts in quantum physics since the early 1900s. “We were guided by a gut feeling, and only a gut feeling, that there should be a connection,” said co-researcher Patrick Coles, who is now at the Institute for Quantum Computing in Waterloo, Canada.

One can write equations that capture how much can be learned about pairs of properties subject to the uncertainty principle. Coles, Wehner and co-author Jedrzej Kaniewski work with a form of such equations known as “entropic uncertainty relations,” and they found that all the maths previously used to describe wave-particle duality could be reformulated in terms of these relations.

“It was like we had discovered the ‘Rosetta Stone’ that connected two different languages,” said Coles. “The literature on wave-particle duality was like hieroglyph that we could now translate into our native tongue.”

Because the entropic uncertainty relations used in their translation have also been used in demonstrating the security of quantum cryptography—schemes for secure communication using quantum particles—the researchers suggest the work could help inspire new cryptography methods.

In earlier papers, Wehner and collaborators found connections between the uncertainty principle and other aspects of physics, namely quantum “non-locality” and the second law of thermodynamics. The first deals with particles’ ability to act as though they can communicate instantaneously over long distances; the second states that disorder in the universe can always increase but not decrease. The researchers say their next goal is to think about how all this fits into a bigger picture of how nature works.

Source : http://world-science.net/

Dinosaur-killer asteroid also nearly wiped out mammals

Dinosaur-killer asteroid also nearly wiped out mammals



The dinosaurs’ extinction 66 million years ago is thought to have opened the way for mammals to dominate the land. But a new study claims many of them died off too.

“If a few lucky species didn’t make it through, then mammals may have gone the way of the dinosaurs and we wouldn’t be here,” said Steve Brusatte of the University of Edinburgh in the U.K., one of the authors of a report on the findings.

Among mammals, the study argues, the brunt of the disaster seems to have hit a group known as metatherians—extinct relatives of living marsupials (“mammals with pouches,” such as opossums and kangaroos.) These thrived in the shadow of the dinosaurs during the Cretaceous period, just before the extinction.

The study, published in the research journal Zookeys, finds these once-abundant mammals nearly followed the dinosaurs into oblivion.

When a 10-km (6-mile)-wide asteroid struck what is now Mexico, unleashing a global cataclysm, some two-thirds of all metatherians living in North America perished, according to the researchers. These casualties, they said, included more than 90 percent of species living in the northern Great Plains, the best area in the world for preserving latest Cretaceous mammal fossils.

Metatherians, the scientists added, would never recover their previous diversity, which is why marsupials are rare today and largely restricted to areas in Australia and South America. Taking advantage of the metatherian demise were the placental mammals: species that give live birth to well-developed young. They are almost everywhere today and include everything from mice to men.

“It wasn’t only that dinosaurs died out, providing an opportunity for mammals to reign, but that many types of mammals, such as most metatherians, died out too—this allowed advanced placental mammals to rise to dominance,” said Thomas Williamson of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, lead author of the paper.

The study reviews the Cretaceous evolutionary history of metatherians and provides a family tree for these mammals based on the latest fossil records, which researchers said allowed them to study extinction patterns in unprecedented detail.

Source :  www.world-science.net

Herd mentality: Are we programmed to make bad decisions?

Herd mentality: Are we programmed to make bad decisions?



A desire to be part of the “in crowd” is a result of our evolution—but can damage our ability to make good decisions, a new study proposes.

The research concludes that groups are less responsive to changes in their natural environment because individuals have evolved to be overly influenced by their neighbors. The investigators used mathematical models to examine how the use of social information has evolved within animal groups.

“Copying what other individuals do can be useful in many situations, such as what kind of phone to buy, or for animals, which way to move or whether a situation is dangerous,” said Colin Torney of the University of Exeter in the U.K., lead author of a paper on the findings.

But “the challenge is in evaluating personal beliefs when they contradict what others are doing. We showed that evolution will lead individuals to over use social information, and copy others too much… the result is that groups evolve to be unresponsive to changes in their environment and spend too much time copying one another, and not making their own decisions. “

The study is published in the Dec. 17 issue of the research journal Interface.

By using a simple model of decision-making in a changing environment, the team found that individuals overly rely on social information and evolve to be too readily influenced by their neighbors. The researchers suggest this is due to a “classic evolutionary conflict between individual and collective interest.”

“Our results suggest we shouldn’t expect social groups in nature to respond effectively to changing environments. Individuals that spend too much time copying their neighbors [are] likely to be the norm,” Torney said.

Data from Rosetta spacecraft yields secrets about comet’s water

Data from Rosetta spacecraft yields secrets about comet’s water


Comet 67p

A comet studied close-up by the European Space Agency is yielding surprising secrets about its water, scientists say.

The new data from the agency’s Rosetta spacecraft suggest most of Earth’s water came from asteroids, not comets, and that comets closer to our part of the Solar System have more diverse origins than previously suspected.

Rosetta found the water vapor from Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko to be very unlike Earth’s, in measurements made in the month following the spacecraft’s arrival at the comet on Aug. 6.

One of the leading hypotheses on Earth’s formation is that it was so hot when it formed 4.6 billion years ago that any original water content should have boiled off. But, today, two thirds of the surface is water, so where did that come from?

Scientists think the water came later from impacting asteroids and comets—two different types of objects that orbit the Sun. (They have different makeups and asteroids lack tails, for instance.)

But how much water came from each type of object is debated.

Scientists believe a key to determining where a particular body of water originated is the levels, within it, of a type of hydrogen known as deuterium, as compared to normal hydrogen. Simulations show that during the first few million years of the Solar System, deuterium levels should change with distance from the Sun and with time. Therefore deuterium levels in a particular body of water can reveal something about where and when it originated.

Comets in particular are considered unique tools to study these origins, since they harbor material directly left over from the dust cloud that gave rise to the planets.

But this isn’t straightforward because many comet orbits have gotten mixed up since long ago. “Long-period” comets, a type that is more distant from the sun, are thought to have originally formed closer in, in the area of the planets Uranus and Neptune. And “short-period” comets, which now inhabit inner regions—like Rosetta’s—were thought to have formed further out, in the Kuiper Belt beyond Neptune.

Previous measurements of other comets’ deuterium levels have varied widely, researchers say. Of the 11 comets for which there are measurements, only the short-period Comet 103P/Hartley 2 was found to match Earth water in makeup, in observations made by the European Space Agency’s Herschel mission in 2011. The levels now measured by Rosetta are more than three times greater.

This suggests two things, mission scientists said.

“This surprising finding could indicate a diverse origin for the Jupiter-family comets – perhaps they formed over a wider range of distances in the young Solar System than we previously thought,” said Kathrin Altwegg, lead author of the paper reporting the results in the journal Science this week.

Second, she said, “our finding… adds weight to models that place more emphasis on asteroids [than comets] as the main delivery mechanism for Earth’s oceans.” Altwegg is principal investigator for an instrument called Rosina (Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) on the spacecraft, which made the measurements.

“As Rosetta continues to follow the comet on its orbit around the Sun throughout next year, we’ll be keeping a close watch on how it evolves and behaves,” added Matt Taylor, the space agency’s Rosetta project scientist.

Birds diversified in “big bang” after dinosaurs died out

Birds diversified in “big bang” after dinosaurs died out



A major new study sheds new light on how and when birds evolved and acquired features such as feathers, flight and song, scientists say.

The study charts a burst of evolution that took place after the dinosaurs suddenly died out, about 66 million years ago. Scientists say this burst occurred as new forms exploited opportunities left open by the absence of the dinosaurs, some of which were the ancestors of these same birds. Within 10 million years, researchers found, the avian explosion created representatives of nearly all the major bird lineages with us today.

The four-year project decoded and compared the entire genetic fingerprint of 48 bird species to represent all these lineages—including the woodpecker, owl, penguin, hummingbird and flamingo.

Researchers also compared these genomes with those of three other reptile species and humans.

They found that birdsong evolved separately at least twice. Parrots and songbirds gained the ability to learn and mimic vocal activity independently of hummingbirds, despite sharing many of the same genes.

The findings are considered important because some of brain processes that are involved in bird singing are also associated with human speech.

Birds are the most geographically diverse group of land animals. They help scientists investigate fundamental questions in biology and ecology and they are also a major global food resource, providing meat and eggs.

More than 200 scientists contributed to the Avian Phylogenomics Project, which was led by BGI in Shenzhen, China, the University of Copenhagen, Duke University in North Carolina, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute based in Chevy Chase, Md., and the Natural History Museum of Denmark. The findings are published in 23 scientific papers, including eight in the journal Science.

Building on this research, scientists at the National Avian Research Facility in Edinburgh have created 48 databases to share and expand on the information associated with the birds’ genomes. They hope that researchers from around the world will continue to upload their own data, offering further insights to the genetics of modern birds.

Such information is expected to be useful for helping scientists to understand why infectious diseases, such as bird flu, affect some species but not others.

“This is just the beginning. We hope that giving people the tools to explore this wealth of bird gene information in one place will stimulate further research,” said David Burt, acting director of the National Avian Research Facility at the University of Edinburgh’s Roslin Institute.

“Ultimately, we hope the research will bring important insights to help improve the health and welfare of wild and farmed birds.”

Source : www.world-science.net

Scientists found punishing kids for lying doesn’t work

Scientists found punishing kids for lying doesn’t work



If you want your child to be truthful, it’s best not to threaten punishment if she or he lies, a study suggests: children are more likely to tell the truth either to please an adult or because they believe it’s the right thing to do.

That’s what psychologists found through an experiment involving 372 children between the ages of 4 and 8.

“If children fear potential negative outcomes for disclosing information, they may be more reluctant to disclose,” the researchers, led by Victoria Talwar of McGill University in Canada, wrote in a paper for the Feb. 2015 issue of the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

The researchers left each child alone in a room for a minute with a toy behind them on a table, having told the child not to peek during their absence. Experimenters told some of the children they would “be in trouble” if they lied about that, while for other youngsters the experimenters mentioned only positive reasons for telling the truth.

A hidden video camera filmed what went on while the child was alone. Upon returning, the experimenter would ask: “When I was gone, did you turn around and peak at the toy?”

About two-thirds of the children peeked, though for every one month increase in age, children became slightly less likely to peek, the study found. Moreover, about two-thirds of the peekers lied about having looked, and month-by-month as children aged, they both become more likely to tell lies and more adept at maintaining their lies.

The researchers also found that the threat of being “in trouble” alone led to more than twice the rate of lying as the appeals to conscience or good feelings alone. Combinations of both types of inducements led to in-between results.

The investigators also expected and found, they said, that while younger children were more focused on telling the truth to please the adults, older children had better internalized standards of behavior that made them tell the truth because it was the right thing to do.

“The bottom line is that punishment does not promote truth-telling,” said Talwar. “In fact, the threat of punishment can have the reverse effect by reducing the likelihood that children will tell the truth when encouraged to do so.”