Researchers have found what they think is the key to understanding why the human brain is larger and more complex than that of other animals.
The human brain, with its unequaled cognitive capacity, has evolved rapidly and dramatically. “We wanted to know why,” said James Sikela of the University of Colorado School of Medicine, who headed the team of scientists in the new study. “The size and cognitive capacity of the human brain sets us apart. But how did that happen?”
“This research indicates that what drove the evolutionary expansion of the human brain may well be a specific unit within a protein — called a protein domain — that is far more numerous in humans than other species.”
A protein domain is a part of a protein that can reappear in identical form in many different proteins. Proteins are the molecules that do much of the work that keep us functioning, and they are produced in the body using a blueprint set by genes.
The protein domain in question is called DUF1220. Humans have more than 270 copies of DUF1220 encoded in the genome, far more than other species. The closer a species is to humans, the more copies of DUF1220 show up. Chimps have the next highest number, 125. Gorillas have 99, marmosets 30 and mice just one.
“The one over-riding theme that we saw repeatedly was that the more copies of DUF1220 in the genome, the bigger the brain. And this held true whether we looked at different species or within the human population,” Sikela said.
Sikela and his team also linked DUF1220 to brain disorders. They associated lower numbers of DUF1220 with microcephaly, in which the brain is too small; larger numbers of the protein domain were associated with macrocephaly, in which the brain is too large.
The findings were reported Aug. 16 in the online edition of The American Journal of Human Genetics. The researchers drew their conclusions by comparing genome sequences from humans and other animals as well as checking the DNA of people with microcephaly and macrocephaly and of a healthy group.
“The take-home message was that brain size may be to a large degree a matter of protein domain dosage,” Sikela said. “This discovery opens many new doors. It provides new tools to diagnose diseases related to brain size. And more broadly, it points to a new way to study the human brain and its dramatic increase in size and ability over what, in evolutionary terms, is a short amount of time.”
Source : http://www.world-science.net/